Man installing a solar panel on a rooftop.

Solar News Stream of Conciousness

IRS forced to allow biofuel criminality

In a particularly eye-catching portion of the report, the inspector general’s office notes that “Under current law, the IRS could only address these claims after the returns are filed and examined and it issues notices of deficiency to the taxpayers, as appropriate.


“The IRS does not have the legal authority to deny biofuel tax credits or otherwise enforce the registration requirements on taxpayers who are not eligible to receive the credits at the time a tax return is filed.”

A federal audit of 124 U.S. taxpayers claiming biofuel tax credits revealed that as many as 42 of them – or roughly one-third – failed to submit the proper paperwork and should not have been given the credits.

The erroneous claims captured by the sample, which included credits for so-called alternative fuels and biodiesel, total $30.3 million out of the approximately $252 million in credits claimed by the sample taxpayers.

The most egregious scheme – carried out under the guise of a Utah biodiesel company, Washakie Renewable Energy – resulted in an erroneous IRS payout of more than $511 million in tax credits.


5,000 volt solar developing, will limit BOS costs, increase efficiency

5,000 volt solar developing, will limit BOS costs, increase efficiency

The installation costs and the BoS hardware (additional items like wires, and electrical components) costs now account for 40% of the total costs


increase in output voltage comes into play. The currents can be reduced by increasing the system voltage. This leads to savings at various points: the mostvisible effect is the significant reduction of cable cross sections

doubling the output voltage (i.e. halving the current) leads to a reduction in the conductors’ cross section of approximately 75%

medium voltage does not only affect the cables; the increased voltage can also increase the output of the subsystems… A higher output is difficult to achieve in a low-voltage transformer due to the large copper cross sections. If the voltage is increased, a winding with the same cross section can transmit a higher power. With a voltage of 1,500V, 10-12MVA is already possible in a transformer and thus in a substation. This results in a smaller number of transformers and switchgear, while the power plant size remains the same. This also means fewer construction works and lower installation costs. At the same time, there is more space for PV modules.

world’s first mediumvoltage string inverter and successfully put it into operation on the grid (above image). It was developed as part of the publicly funded MS-Leikra project. The inverter has an output voltage of 1,500Vac with an output of 250kVA. It has a two-stage design. The step-up converter with a PV input voltage of 1.7kV to 2.4kV is based on 3.3kV SiC semiconductors. The  inverter section was constructed using hybrid ANPC modules. Four silicon and two SiC semiconductors are used here. This topology allows the major advantages of SiC to be utilised at only slightly higher costs.

the Mengjiawan project in Yulin City in the Shanxi province of China. Here, a pilot plant with a DC voltage of 2,000V was built and put into operation

Trina shipped 65 GW in 2023, seeks to almost double in 2024

Trina Solar shipped more than 65GW of modules in 2023


aims to produce 60GW of monocrystalline wafers, 105GW of cells and 120GW of modules by the end of 2024

grew revenue by over 27% compared to 2022

up from 43.1GW in 2022, representing a 51.3% year-on-year growth

latest 210mm n-type industrial tunnel oxide passivated contact (i-TOPCon) module has achieved a maximum power output of 740.6W

tracker manufacturing unit TrinaTracker has delivered over 20GW of trackers worldwide as of Q1 2024, with the company’s global tracker production capacity standing at more than 10GW

shipments in DC container and battery energy storage systems (BESS) totalled 5GWh


Heterojunction solar cell efficiency climbs – 26.5%

achieved a 26.50% power conversion efficiency in an HJT solar cell and expects to maintain an average efficiency of 26.15% in mass production

obtained for a G12 heterojunction solar cell through unspecified texturing processes and the adoption of “efficient yet cost-effective” target materials


Huasun said its G12R rectangular cell achieved a maximum efficiency of 26.41% and an average efficiency of 26.01%


Top ranked inverter manufacturers – Hoymiles Power Electronics, Enphase, Kstar, Eaton, and Goodwe

inverter manufacturers leading the ranking are China’s Hoymiles Power Electronics, U.S.-based microinverter specialist Enphase Energy, Shenzen-based Kstar Science and Technology, Irish energy management specialist Eaton, China’s Goodwe and Sinexcel, Taiwan’s Delta Electronics, Clenergy and Hopewind, both based in China, and Switzerland’s ABB


Sinovoltaics’ financial stability ranking is based on a so-called Altmann Z-score, a quantitative formula that uses multiple corporate income and balance sheet values to measure the financial health of a company

assesses a company’s financial strength through a credit-strength test based on profitability, leverage, liquidity, solvency, and activity ratios


Australia seeking for offshore wind project, awards six licenses

list of six projects given a licence to go ahead with costly feasibility and environmental studies


developers vying to install the first offshore wind turbines ion Australia, off the coast of Gippsland in Victoria

the 2.2GW Star of the South (SOTS) has been awarded a licence. The project is being developed by Danish giant Copenhagen Infrastructure Partners (CIP), super outfit Cbus and its original Australian co-founders Andy Evans, Terry Kallis and Peter Sgardelis

seen as the most likely to be first to get built and start generating power in Australian waters. When that might occur remains to be seen, but Victoria has set a target for at least 2 gigawatts installed by 2032

Ørsted has been awarded a feasibility licence for its Gippsland 1 wind farm – a 2.8GW project proposed for a 700km2 area 56-100 km off the coast of Gippsland

2GW Gippsland 2 project, directly next door to Gippsland 1 on the map (below), is also among the six projects in line for a licence, pending further consultation with First Nations groups

another licence winner, is being proposed by Madrid-base EDP Renewables and Paris-based Engie as part of the two companies’ 50-50 offshore wind joint venture called Ocean Winds.

installed capacity of 1.28 GW in a 150km2 area off the Gippsland coast


Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, and Thailand investigated over redirected Chinese solar cells

US Department of Commerce (DOC) has initiated investigations into solar cell imports from Southeast Asia under the antidumping and countervailing duty (AD/CVD) tariffs


imports from Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand and Malaysia to the US, regardless of whether the cells are assembled into modules

based on a petition raised by the American Alliance for Solar Manufacturing Trade Committee in April

builds on previous AD/CVD petitions which claimed – ultimately successfully – that certain Chinese-owned solar manufacturers were relocating parts of their supply chains to Southeast Asia for what the DOC called “minor processing”, in order to avoid US antidumping duties on China

imports from Cambodia totalled over US$2.3 billion, Malaysia over US$1.8 billion, Thailand over US$3.7 billion and Vietnam over US$3.9 billion in 2023

ITA published data stating that the alleged dumping rate for solar cells from Vietnam is 271.38%—meaning that the normal US market price is more than twice that of the cells exported from Vietnam. The alleged rate for Cambodia is 124.37%, Malaysia 81.22% and Thailand 70.36%.


Conservative climate action at odds with beliefs – effective nonetheless

liberals and conservatives take action to address climate change at roughly the same levels


disconnect between beliefs and behaviors among conservatives when it comes to environmental matters – common ground with liberals when it comes to taking action

researchers identified which messages—or interventions—can be effective in boosting beliefs in climate change and policy support among both conservatives and liberals

Several interventions were effective in altering beliefs and policy support across the ideological divide, in liberals and conservatives alike

impact of interventions was not uniform

framing certain actions as a climate change solution can backfire and decrease conservatives’ engagement

interventions aimed at increasing conservatives’ pro-environmental behaviors should not involve their climate-change beliefs

three interventions—emphasizing effective collective actions, writing a letter to a future generation member, and writing a letter from the future self—boosted the climate beliefs and policy support of both liberals and conservatives


Remote control solar farm pile driver

remote-controlled piling machine designed specifically for solar farm construction

can drive piles up to 24’ (with 5’ extension)


Controls such as auto-level and auto-plumb that will vastly improve your speed, efficiency and accuracy

Both Hercules’ STR20 and Vermeer’s PD10 have auto-plumb control, which automatically orients the mast of the machine perpendicular to the ground

auto-plumb also has a laser receiver option, which allows the pile-driving process to stop — without operator involvement — once the pile driver reaches the set point

  • Danfoss IK3 Remote Control
  • 4.3″ LCD Display for functional information
  • Onboard 7″ Settings Control Panel
    2.4GHz Communication for Reliable Connection
  • Replaceable Battery for elongated use
  • Tethered Harness for comfort during operation
  • Machine Inclinometer for gradient warning
  • Three Quick Change Attachments
  • Vibratory
  • Impact
  • Auger
  • 360 Degree Rotation
  • Auto Plumb and Level
  • GPS Ready (Trimble, Carlson, StoneX)
  • 24′ Max Pile Length (With optional 5′ mast extension)
  • 74.9 Hp T4 Final Yanmar Power Plant
  • Multi Axis Mast Movement
  • Easily Transported

Download the STR20-RC specifications sheet


Terracotta solar panels

400W glass-glass TOPCon solar panel that blends aesthetically with tiled terracotta roofs


use a coloured encapsulation material which creates the eponymous red colouring

‘results in a very low encapsulation loss which’

40mm aluminium frame

hail resistance class 4


Will electricity CO2 peak this year?

renewable energy generated about 30% of electricity across the globe in 2023


Solar generation growth increased 23% globally

wind grew 10%

fossil fuel generation grew only 0.8% last year

Solar reached a 5.5% share of the global electricity mix, reaching 1,631 TWh, rising from 4.6% in 2022

ember: Despite reaching new record highs, the absolute growth in wind and solar (+513 TWh) was below expectations and slightly smaller than in 2022 (+517 TWh). This was mainly due to lower-than-expected wind growth, which was 18% lower compared to the 249 TWh increase in 2022

Demand for electricity grew by 637 TWh globally in 2023, rising 2.2%, or the equivalent of adding the entire electricity demand of Canada to the total

global electricity demand to a record 29,471 TWh

Solar and wind met most of the increased electricity demand globally, adding 513 TWh of generation, or about 82% of new demand

In aggregate, all other clean electricity sources fell – small rises in bioenergy and nuclear were not enough to counter the large fall in hydro generation caused by extensive drought

Together, all clean sources met 79% of the increase in electricity demand

Combined with nuclear, the world generated about 40% of its electricity from low-carbon sources in 2023. Ember said this has resulted in CO2 intensity of global power generation falling 12% lower than its peak in 2007.

Absolute fossil fuel generation increased 0.8% over the year, and global emissions increased by 1%, reaching 14,153 million tons of CO2 emitted by electricity generation

2023 came very close to becoming the first year of a new era of falling power sector emissions

! Clean energy capacity growth was already large enough to deliver a decline in emissions 2023, but a record fall in hydropower generation due to droughts prevented that. Ember said that 2023 likely marked the peak of power sector emissions.


White ground covering boosts solar output 4.5% in Canada

Researchers at the University of Ottawa in Canada have investigated the effects of using an artificial ground reflector in large scale bifacial PV plants and have found it can increase a facility’s power generation by up to 4.5%


reflectors should be placed directly under the solar panels, not between rows, to maximize this benefit

conducted its analysis on a 75 kW bifacial system based on horizontal single-axis tracking (HSAT)

testing was performed over 4 months

utilized an artificial high-albedo, UV-resistant reflector material made of high-density polyethylene (HDPE)

assessed five different reflector configurations: with 100% ground coverage; 50% and 25% ground coverage, both centered on the torque tube; and 50% and 25% ground coverage, both centered in the middle of the open ground between rows

modeling presented a root mean square error (RMSE) of 5.4% on an hourly basis and showed an increase in total annual irradiance of 8.6% and an annual energy yield of up to 4.5% when 70% reflective material is added to a single-axis-tracked system

optimal reflector placement was found to be the one centered directly under the torque tube for all reflector sizes

reflector technology can achieve breakeven installed costs of $2.50–4.60 per m2

“Higher breakeven material costs are possible in systems with higher initial LCOE. For example, we found breakeven installed costs of $3.40–6.00/m2 for Seattle, Washington, with 60% reflective material”


Fluence energy storage pipeline reaches 74 GW

Fluence total pipeline grew by $2.9B, or 14.8 GW, from Q1 to Q2


defines pipeline as its “uncontracted, potential revenue from energy storage products and solutions, service, and digital software contracts, which have a reasonable likelihood of contract execution within 24 months.”

cash position grew by about $87.8 million in the first half of its 2024 fiscal year, which ended March 31, compared with a decline of $164.5 million in the first half of its fiscal 2023

total pipeline stands at 74.4 GW and $16.3 billion, marking the 10th consecutive quarter during which orders outpaced “revenue recognized,”

expects to begin manufacturing battery modules it expects to qualify for the Inflation Reduction Act’s domestic content bonus by the end of 2024 and deliver the first orders next year

sign its first contracts for batteries expected to qualify for the Inflation Reduction Act’s domestic content requirements

new Gridstack Pro 5000 Series product, a “more energy-dense 5-6 MWh enclosure” that improves land-use efficiency in utility-scale storage plants


Massachusetts substation upgrade process killing solar projects

Department of Public Utilities is considering several proposals to spread the cost of substation upgrades, and until it decides on them no solar projects larger than 15 kilowatts can move forward in one part of the state


More than 100 megawatts of planned solar projects throughout southeastern Massachusetts are facing lengthy delays as needed grid upgrades wait for state approval

Until these improvements are approved and executed, no solar developments larger than 15 kilowatts for single-phase systems or 25 kilowatts for triple-phase systems can be connected to the grid in many of the covered areas

state energy department created a process that lets utilities propose plans to spread the cost burden of some grid upgrades among ratepayers, then recoup some of this money from future distributed generation projects and use it to reimburse ratepayers

capital investment project proposals must be approved by utilities regulators. Massachusetts is the first state to create such a process

April 2022, Eversource — which covers 140 towns around Boston and in the southeastern and western parts of the state — filed six such proposals relating to improvements in regions throughout southeastern Massachusetts

One of the proposals has been approved; the other five remain pending, raising questions about what happens next — and when

Department of Public Utilities was unable to share any concrete timeline, noting that it intends to consider each application in detail. Because the process is new — in Massachusetts and beyond — there is no precedent for how long such deliberations should or usually do take


Silfab factory blocked over chemical concern


appeals board reversed the approval of the solar power manufacturer in a light industrial district, which is how that community is zoned

Residents were worried about the proximity to two new schools

Residents also brought up concerns about chemicals, which would be used at the facility


Solar takes 25 months from interconnection to turning on


EIA reported that the median length for solar projects has reached 25 months from signing of interconnection agreements to actual commercial operation dates

Solar developers faced delays to online dates on approximately 19 percent of planned solar capacity in 2023

The year before, the average was 23 percent


US grid scale storage costs down 50% in 2024, CEA


average 2024 price of a BESS 20-foot DC container in the US is expected to come down to US$148/kWh, down from US$180/kWh last year, a similar fall to that seen in 2023

means the price for a BESS DC container – comprising lithium iron phosphate (LFP) cells, 3.7MWh and 4-hour duration, delivered with duties paid from China to the US – will have nearly halved by the end of 2024 compared to the highs of 2022, when it hit US$270/kWh


Solar panels under a dime


price of €0.0911 ($0.098)/W is 2.15% more than its last purchase in December 2023

Solaria’s latest solar module procurement price costs 71% less than in 2022

435 MW of solar PV modules

Solaria plans to deploy these modules in its 700 MW Garoña project (Burgos) during 2024


69 new solar manufacturing facilities adding 25,157 jobs to the US economy


US companies have announced more than 100,000 jobs in clean energy manufacturing since the passage of the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA)

69 new projects in the solar sector, adding 25,157 jobs to the US economy

solar sector has also attracted the third-most investment among the sectors studied, receiving US$13.8 billion

47 new projects in the solar manufacturing space have been launched since the act’s passage, which account for 18.5% of all new manufacturing jobs

announced in April, US tracker manufacturer OMCO Solar’s plans to open a new manufacturing facility in Alabama, which will add 70 jobs, and the other is Vietnamese firm Boviet Solar’s decision to open a 2GW cell and module assembly plant in North Carolina.


Battery systems under $100/kWh

BloombergNEF is seeing ’energy storage systems’ – probably battery cells in packs, in 20’ shipping containers, decked out with supporting gear (HVAC, etc), and some sort of bus or combiner – below $100/kWh. Probably doesn’t include a DC to DC converter, inverter, and maybe no battery management/controller.

Still – 5 MWh containers coating $500,000

Is pretty awesome.


113 GW of solar polysilicon inventories in China


Shanghai Metals Market reported last week that the amount of polysilicon #inventories in China is approaching 250,000 metric tons

250k MT = 250 billion grams, 2.2 grams per watt of solar = 113.6 GW of solar capacity

global price average fell by 4.1% to US$6.15/kg

US$4.65/kg, the price of dense polysilicon for p-type #wafers in China has hit the next record low

three companies have already started “normal maintenance;” another five are planning to bring shutdowns for maintenance or technical transformation forward into May

high-quality polysilicon (n-type material) in #China dropped by 4.4% to CNY43/kg (including 13% value added tax, equivalent to US$5.27/kg


Century old Manhattan building gets geothermal heat pump


engineers in the bowels of a nearly century-old apartment building drilled 14 holes to a depth of 500 feet to install a heating system that taps the constant temperature of subterranean rock

In a U.S. first, they used a compact drilling rig that fits inside a basement.

Only the boiler, cooling unit and radiators serving the Beresford’s common areas were replaced

new system will cost half as much to run as the old one and need replacing far less often

federal, utility, and $500,000 technology grant from New York State

holes were drilled beneath a new building that went up next door

smaller rig used at the Beresford, along with a quieter, water-powered drill, came from a company in Sweden, where these operations were pioneered

Hermantin says perhaps 10,000 New York buildings could get the Beresford treatment

challenge – mapping out water pipes, fiber-optic cables and other underground infrastructure like the nearby subway to ensure the 4.25-inch drill holes didn’t hit anything important


Solar manufacturing capacity factor 50% – $140/kW for full-chain solar PV manufacturing

global solar cell and module manufacturing industry is currently operating at a utilization rate of approximately 50%

global investments in new solar factories amounted to $80 billion in 2023 alone, which is two times more than in 2022

Chinese solar industry accounted for approximately 95% of global investments in wafer production capacity last year, 96% of investment in polysilicon production facilities, and 83% of module factories

Existing manufacturing capacity for solar PV modules and cells could today achieve what is necessary to meet demand under the NZE Scenario in 2030 – six years ahead of schedule

a 56 GW solar module factory under construction by JinkoSolar in China’s Shanxi Comprehensive Reform Demonstration Zone is cheaper than national average values

the facility is projected to come in at $7.8 billion, or $140/kW for full-chain solar PV manufacturing, compared with our national average figure of $185/kW for China



Solar powered megawatt truck charger opens

119-acre site is designed, owned, and operated by WattEV

world’s first electric truck stop featuring a solar-powered microgrid with a battery energy storage system (BESS) and is capable of megawatt rapid charging (MCS)

16 dual-cord 360kW chargers connected to the grid and 15 single-cord 240kW CCS chargers

three MCS 1,200kW rapid chargers, drawing power from the site’s solar array

MCS chargers will bring down truck charging “dwell time” from hours to less than 30 minutes for a 300-mile range

depot is located near the junction of busy highways CA-99 at CA-65

will serve heavy-duty electric trucks with routes connecting the San Joaquin Valley’s vast agricultural sector and growing distribution warehouse region to the state’s seaports and inland destinations throughout Southern California and the West

WattEV offers an innovative electric Truck-as-a-Service (TaaS) model that provides fleets or individual operators with access to Class 8 battery-electric trucks, reliable maintenance support, insurance, and charging across WattEV’s network



US utility wind, solar, and storage up 28% in Q1

U.S. utility-scale solar, wind and storage sectors added a combined 5,585 MW of new capacity in the first quarter of 2024

increase of 28% compared to installations in the same period a year ago

energy storage deployments were flat compared to the same period in the previous year

utility-scale solar surpassed 100 GW of installed capacity

domestic clean power pipeline has expanded to nearly 175 GW, mainly attributed to battery storage and solar

pipeline for new storage projects increased by 61% year-over-year to 31.6 GW

US. clean power capacity now stands at 269,878 MW



Market volatility drives battery revenue

company’s biggest earner, with the 50 MW, two hour battery

announced on Monday that the Bouldercombe battery earned AU$4.2 million of net revenue in its first full quarter of operations

dispatching 7,152MWh of energy to the Queensland grid

average price of $385 per megawatt-hour

$2 million was contributed by the 50 MW Kidston solar farm in Queensland (which enjoyed a boost in its average price received of $80/MWh)

$3.4 million from the Jemalong solar farm in NSW (average price $97/MWh)

Boudlercombe battery has a 20 year warranty and operations and maintenance contracts with Tesla

Tesla is operating the plant at the moment using their autobidder algorithmic bidding technology to operate in the … control ancillary services markets and every five minutes optimising the dispatch of the plan to maximise revenue

provide us with a revenue floor guarantee and in exchange for operating the plant and providing that guarantee we share a portion of the upside

given the “lumpy” nature of the markets they operate in – the company had settled on a guidance of $12-$15 million a year from Bouldercombe



Solar panel silver sees 5 mg/W future

we investigate the potential to optimize the screen-printed front side metallization of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells

a grid layout is improved by increasing the number of contact fingers from 120 to 156

current possibility to push the fine-line printing process for low-temperature pastes to the limit is investigated by reducing the nominal finger width wn to 20, 18, and 15 μm

shown that even the smallest nominal width of wn = 15 μm can be printed with high quality, leading to an additional efficiency gain of Δη = +0.15%abs as well as a reduction of silver paste laydown by −5 mg

Finally, a batch of champion cells is fabricated by applying the findings of the previous experiments, which results in a maximum efficiency of ηmax = 23.2%. Compared to the reference group without optimization, this corresponds to a gain of Δη = +0.17%abs, which comes along with an additional decrease of the silver paste laydown by approximately −2 mg

Using fine-mesh screens to print very fine contacts,6, 7 even the predicted goal to reduce the silver consumption below 5 mg/Wp5 seems to be within reach.



Solar panels and cucumbers in agrivoltaic install

three different PV technologies to power a greenhouse hosting 400 cucumber seedlings

PV module cover on the greenhouse’s roof has a “negligible” impact on crop yield

‘compares the impact of opaque silicon PV versus semi-transparent organic photovoltaic technologies installed at canopy height within a Mediterranean polytunnel greenhouse on the growth of cucumber plants’

they used three different semi-transparent PV technologies in their work — bifacial glass-encapsulated PERC panels, bifacial plastic-encapsulated PERC modules, and semi-transparent organic photovoltaics (OPVs)

plants under the OPV and plastic modules grew bigger, which may depend on a better adaptation to capture more light in shaded conditions

“The glass-encapsulated silicon PV modules delivered enhanced crop yields, and highest efficiency,”

However, the OPV modules, with lower efficiency yielded fruits with a higher average weight, suggesting their light transmittance might be more attuned to plant efficient growth.

While the current findings lean in favor of the glass-encapsulated modules, the potential of advanced OPV technologies, especially those with spectral transmittance fine-tuned for plant growth, remains an exciting prospect for greenhouse integration, especially as OPV efficiencies increase

plants being arranged in four pairs of rows with 40 cm in-row spacings. Watering was performed for 30 min every day to give about 30 m3 of water per hectare



“We can entirely and completely reuse a wind turbine blade” (Texas fraud company doesn’t though)

This finding has paved the way for a Tennessee company called Carbon Rivers to begin the lengthy process of recycling about one thousand blades into material to make, among other items, composite decking boards, ceiling tiles, and injection-molded automobile cupholders.

“You have glass fiber and carbon fiber composite and resin and other constituent parts like wood and foam. All that can be recovered.”

When I asked him what he saw when he looked at photographs of the blades in Sweetwater, he said, “I see a new boat, a new car, a new blade. There is no longer any need whatsoever to landfill composites.”

A different company has lied about removing blades though, and multiple states recognize this:

“Recycling in Progress,” reads a sign on a box truck parked behind a chain-link fence, but the evidence suggests that’s an empty promise.

Global Fiberglass Solutions, a Washington State company that promised the State of Texas, the county, the city, investors, wind-energy companies, and its Sweetwater neighbors that its business plan was to temporarily store the blades there before grinding them up and recycling them into pallets or railroad ties.

That never happened, but after I first visited the site, last August, the company’s CEO, Don Lilly, promised: “If you come back nine months from now, you will not see the material.”

This is the fraud part:

General Electric filed a lawsuit claiming it had paid GFS $16.9 million to recycle about five thousand blades, which the company instead stockpiled in Sweetwater and Iowa. GFS took the money and the blades and then “all but shut down,” according to the complaint. GFS has asked for an extension because it can’t hire a lawyer.

That state’s (Iowa) environmental agency investigated, determined that GFS was running an unpermitted dump, and forwarded the matter to the state’s attorney general. A subsequent investigation determined that GFS never owned the blades.

The State of Texas could take charge, but its wheels of justice are turning much slower than Iowa’s. In late 2022, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality fined GFS $10,255 and gave it a year to obtain a permit to store industrial solid waste. That year lapsed in November, and the company never finished paying the fine.


74 GW/173 GWh – 41% growth – energy storage projected deployed globally in 2024 – Trendforce

new installations of global energy storage are poised to reach 74GW/173GWh in 2024

year-on-year growth of 33% and 41%

China, the United States, and Europe contributing a whopping 85% to the total installations

residential energy storage, projections for new installations in 2024 stand at 11GW/20.9GWh, reflecting a modest 5% and 11% increase

Commercial and Industrial (C&I) Energy Storage: Anticipated for 2024, new installations are projected to soar to 8GW / 19GWh, marking a staggering 128% and 153% year-on-year increase

Utility-scale Energy Storage: Forecasted for 2024, new installations are set to reach 55GW / 133.7GWh, reflecting a solid 33% and 38% increase

Asia: Expected to reach 82 GWh in new installations in 2024, marking a 41% year-on-year increase.

Europe: Expected to achieve 32 GWh in new installations in 2024, representing a substantial 55% year-on-year increase

Americas: Anticipated to achieve 49 GWh in new installations in 2024, marking a robust 31% year-on-year increase.

United States is projected to contribute 88% of the total installations in the Americas in 2024.

MEA (Middle East and Africa): Projections indicate new installations reaching 10 GWh in 2024, showcasing a robust 54% year-on-year increase.



Batteries cheaper than methane peakers in Maine

Maine can replace two aging gas-fired peaker plants with up to 200 MW of 4-hour battery storage at a lower lifetime net cost than a new gas plant

Though 2-hour battery storage is the lowest-cost peaker replacement under ISO New England’s current forward capacity accreditation framework — followed by a new F-frame turbine — 4-hour battery storage is more economical under an effective load-carrying capability framework that disadvantages shorter-duration storage assets, the study said

state has less than 100 MW of active grid-connected storage, approximately 225 MW in additional storage capacity is slated to come online by the end of next year

CESA honed in on three particularly costly and underutilized peaker plants as candidates for replacement: the 54-year-old, 40-MW Cape Gas plant; the 23-year-old, 183-MW Verso plant, which previously provided energy to a now-defunct paper mill; and the 59-year-old, 114-MW Wyman 3 plant

capacity factors of 0.1%, 0.6% and 3.3%

With social costs included, the net cost of a new F-frame gas turbine rose from $1.87/kWh to $3.10/kWh under both capacity accreditation frameworks

net cost of 2-hour storage replacement came in at -$0.54/kWh under the qualifying capacity framework and $3.12/kWh under the effective load-carrying capability framework

e net cost of 4-hour storage was $2.42/kWh under QC and $2.63/kWh under ELCC


North Carolina getting 2 GW solar cell and panel factory

solar panels and cells manufacturing facility in North America, committing a total investment of USD 294 million (EUR 274.4m).

will establish the factory in two phases, with a plan to start mass production in the first quarter of 2025

first set up the solar panel factory using an existing building, aiming for an annual production capacity of 2 GW

factory will produce the company’s TOPCon N-Type cell, technology-based monofacial and bifacial solar panels for residential, commercial and industrial, and developers of utility-scale projects

second phase will involve the construction of a 500,000 to 600,000-sq-ft (46,451 sq m-55,742 sq m) facility on a 34-acre (13.8 ha) site, which will produce 2 GW of PV cells annually



Using 3D graphene to manage “unruly” lithium and sulfur batteries

Lyten, opening of its first lithium-sulfur battery pilot plant in San Jose, California

September company announced it had raised $200 million to scale manufacturing of its 3D graphene material with a range of initial applications and production, including next-gen batteries

graphene-enabled lithium-sulfur batteries being developed by Lyten do not use nickel, cobalt or manganese

Lithium-sulfur batteries were invented in the 1960s

Lyten’s claim is that its 3D graphene can contain the unruliness of sulfur.

startup’s ​“over-subscribed” Series B funding round was led by venture capital firm Prime Movers Lab along with automotive giant Stellantis, FedEx, Honeywell and Walbridge Aldinger, bringing the total equity investment in Lyten to more than $410 million since the company’s founding in 2015



Glass-glass TOPcon solar panels new failure modes

PERC modules remain stable with Pmax loss of only 1–2%rel after 1000 h of DH testing, regardless of the BOM employed

after the same duration of DH testing, TOPCon cell modules degrade significantly, with Pmax declining up to 65%rel.

investigates the impact of damp heat (DH) on the performance TOPCon and PERC glass/backsheet modules by varying bills of materials (BOM)

Three types of failures were observed in TOPCon modules: point-localized failure, failure at/around the interconnection of ribbon wires and busbars, and failure throughout the whole area of cells/modules

failures likely result from electrochemical reactions involving moisture, cell metallization, ribbon wires, contaminants, soldering flux, and additives released from POE

observed findings underline two crucial points: 1) the vulnerability and potential failure of TOPCon solar cells when exposed to high humidity and contaminants, and 2) the high risk associated with certain POE types, which could potentially adversely affect TOPCon cells



755 W HJT solar panel from Tongwei

755.03W THC HJT module, exhibited by Chinese manufacturer Tongwei, was the module with the highest output presented at WFES 2024

trend towards larger modules and higher output, larger products, such as 182mm and 210mm modules, have become the key devices on display at the exhibition

heterojunction (HJT) modules were among the most common, and the products exhibited by various module companies had power capacities exceeding 700W

Sunman Energy’s Dragonfly module, a 520W glass-free lightweight module made of polymer composite materials. This attractive new module plus installation system weighs just 4.1kg/㎡, which is 60% lighter than conventional glass modules

Hoshine at WFES, the company is aiming for a module manufacturing capacity of 20GW in Middle East



Long-duration heat (sand) storage at $4 to $10 per kWh

thermal energy storage, or TES, which uses molten salt or even superheated rocks

NREL prototype heaters powered by renewable energy sources like wind and solar can raise the temperature of sand particles to the desired temperature

deposited into a silo for storage and use later, either to generate electricity or for process heat in industrial applications

computer model that shows a commercial-scale device would retain more than 95% of its heat for at least five days

sand needs to flow through the storage device

heat transfer is much higher and much quicker and much more effective if you’re moving your media

sand as a storage medium would cost from $4 to $10 a kilowatt-hour

groundbreaking in 2025 on an electric thermal energy storage (ETES) system at NREL’s Flatirons Campus outside Boulder, Colorado

designed to store energy for between 10 and 100 hours

can retain considerably more heat, in the range of 1,100 C (2,012 F)

ceramic materials outperformed the sand in all categories, but the marginal performance gains were considered insufficient to justify the higher cost

sand costs from $30 to $80 a ton, the prices of the ceramic materials were about two magnitudes higher

sand is in the ultra-pure form of alpha quartz and readily available in the Midwest



Zero degradation CATL battery material (?) – Li5FeO4 (LFO)

How is CATL making “zero degradation” batteries?

CATL and Yutong’s collaboration has yielded LFP batteries boasting a lifespan of up to 15 years, with “zero” degradation for the first 1000 cycles

CATL’s new 6.25 MWh ESS boasts a 30 % increase in energy density with a 20 % smaller footprint and claims “zero” degradation for the first 5 years

With each cycle, a small number of Li ions become trapped or lost, akin to a bucket with a slow leak – known as the loss of lithium inventory (LLI), gradually diminishes the battery’s capacity

“The Suspect: Sacrificial Lambs – Cathode Additives”

Li5FeO4 (LFO), emerges as a promising candidate for the cathode additive role.

boasts a remarkably high theoretical capacity 867 mAh/g, translating to over 700 mAh/g in practical use for storing lithium ions

unlike the main cathode material, LFO releases its lithium ions permanently, transforming into an inactive material, amorphous LiFeO2 upon fulfilling its purpose

can be easily mixed with LFP cathode powder in the cathode slurry result in uniform coating

How LFO Works:

we lack direct confirmation, circumstantial evidence points towards LFO

Dynanonic – CATL started recently manufacturing material – stated that incorporating 1.5 % to 2 % of cathode additives in the battery system could boost energy density by up to 5 %, while an addition of 3 % to 4 % could nearly double the cycling life



Australian silicon-carbon anode manufacturer coming to USA

Wollongong-based Sicona Battery Technologies

initially be capable of producing about 6,700 tonnes per annum (tpa) of silicon-carbon anode material

scaling up to a total output of 26,500 tpa by the early 2030s

said its current generation silicon-graphite composite anode materials “supercharge” lithium-ion batteries, delivering a 20%-plus increase in energy density over conventional graphite-only battery cells and reducing charge times by more than 40%

already started supplying product samples and begun offtake discussions with potential customers in the U.S.

exact location of the planned new manufacturing facility has not yet been revealed but Sicona said it will be sited in the nation’s southeast “near the geographic heart of the growing U.S. battery and EV manufacturing hub.”



Jinko seeks 100 GW+ of solar modules shipped in 2024

JinkoSolar released its 2023 annual performance report, posting PV module shipments of 78.52GW throughout the year

targeting a production capacity of monocrystalline wafers, high-efficiency cells and modules of 120GW, 110GW and 130GW, respectively

n-type modules will account for more than 90% of this capacity

JinkoSolar expects its annual module shipments to be be between 100GW and 110GW, of which n-type shipments will account for nearly 90%

2023 revenue of nearly RMB118.7 billion (US$16.4 billion), a year-on-year increase of more than 40%, and the net profit attributable to the parent company was nearly RMB7.5 billion (US$1 billion), a year-on-year increase of more than 150%

first phase of JinkoSolar’s 56GW vertically integrated base project in Shanxi province has been put into operation

According to its annual report, the highest conversion efficiency of its n-type TOPCon cells was 26.89%, and the highest efficiency of n-type TOPCon perovskite tandem cells was 32.33%. At the end of 2023, the average efficiency of n-type cells in mass production exceeded 25.8%.



Clean energy 10% of global GDP growth

in 2023, clean energy added around USD 320 billion to the world economy

represented 10% of global GDP growth

clean energy growth accounted for around 6% of GDP growth in the world’s largest economy in 2023 (USA)

Clean energy accounted for around one-fifth of China’s 5.2% GDP growth

clean energy accounted for nearly one-third of GDP growth in 2023 in the EU

Clean energy contributed slightly less than 5% of GDP growth in 2023, predominantly from investment in new solar power capacity in India

clean energy investment and sales accounted for between 1% and 4% of total GDP in the four major regions assessed

At the global level, we estimate that around USD 200 billion was invested in clean energy technology manufacturing in 2023, an increase of 75% over the previous year

in 2023, 36 million workers were employed across clean energy supply chains



Solar helps lower desalination costs 90%

Older, thermal plants, which used heat to turn salt water into steam, delivered potable water at more than $3 per cubic metre.

reverse osmosis technology — in which water is pushed through a membrane to remove salt, minerals and impurities — has taken over

Plants cost less to build — perhaps $400mn to purify 500,000 cubic metres per day, says Christopher Gasson of GWI. Including installation, a return on capital and operating costs, that translates to $0.30 per cubic metre of water

Newer plants also need less energy — 2.6KWh per cubic metre — and are increasingly powered by cheap solar plants

cheapest plant in the world gets energy at $0.025/KWh, or $0.07 per cubic metre

Hassyan project in Dubai has promised desalinated water at just $0.37 per cubic metre

drinking water in London is priced at £1 per cubic metre

Desalination has also become cheaper than building new infrastructure to transport water over long distances



Pakistan says solar net metering buyback rate too strong, affluent and industry over represented

Government says massive solar installation is affecting 30 million consumers, imposing Rs1.90 per unit burden on them

Pakistan government said on Saturday net-metering was promoting unhealthy investments in installation of solar power by affluent domestic and industrial consumers, hinting at cutting the buyback rates to discourage uptick in the sector

government approved the net-metering policy in 2017, allowing solar panel purchasers to sell power they produced to the national grid to spur the solar energy use and cut power shortages

government is paying Rs21 per unit for the net-metered electricity



44% efficiency simulated in perovskite-perovskite-heterojunction solar cell

researchers in Germany has developed a comprehensive optoelectrical simulation model for triple-junction solar cells based on subcells relying on perovskite, perovskite, and crystalline silicon

For their modeling, the academics chose the Sentaurus TCAD, which is a multidimensional simulator capable of simulating the electrical, thermal, and optical characteristics of silicon-based devices

researchers initially assumed the triple junction cell to be based on a bottom silicon heterojunction cell with an indium tin oxide (ITO) layer and a silver (Ag) metal contact, a middle perovskite cell with an energy bandgap of 1.57 eV, and a top perovskite cell with a bandgap of 1.84 eV

In the optimization process, their efforts were directed to increase the photocurrent of all three cells

simulation showed that the best cell configuration may potentially achieve a power conversion efficiency of 44.3%, an open-circuit voltage of 3480 mV, a short-circuit density of 14.1 mA cm−2, and a fill factor of 90.1%



Bernreuter says 3.8 TW of solar in 2030 plausible

latest scenario from market researcher Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BloombergNEF) arrives at only 880 GW in 2030

the 2022 results presentation from Chinese polysilicon manufacturer GCL Technology predicted 1.5 TW

Radovan Kopecek, co-founder and director of the International Solar Energy Research Center Konstanz – have been saying that PV will enter the terawatt age as early as 2027

the scenario published by Dr. Dahlmeier Financial Risk Management AG, however, annual PV installations exceed 1 TW already in 2026

scenario from BloombergNEF entails a CAGR of only 10.4%

group of more than 50 PV scientists regards a CAGR of 25% as necessary to reach climate targets

CEO Dr. Uwe Dahlmeier argues that a historical PV growth rate of 36% is almost universally found in literature

An analysis shows that PV’s CAGR indeed averaged at 36.6% over almost half a century from 1975 through 2022 (see chart); this analysis was presented by Johannes Bernreuter, Head of Bernreuter Research

Even in PV’s weakest growth phase between 1984 and 1996 (after the oil crisis abated and solar incentives were scrapped), it reached a CAGR of 15%, which makes BloombergNEF’s scenario worthless

After another period with a lower CAGR of 19.5% between 2012 and 2019, PV rebounded to an average CAGR of almost 40% in the last four years



EVs up 25% in Q1, expected >20% global market share for 2024

IEA Outlook report asserts that global EV sales are set to remain “robust” in 2024, reaching around 17 million by the end of the year

Q1 sales grew by about 25% year-over-year – similar to the growth rate seen in the same period a year earlier but from a larger base

number of EVs sold globally in Q1 2024 is roughly equivalent to that in all of 2020

In 2024, electric car sales in China are projected to jump to about 10 million, accounting for about 45% of all car sales in the country

US roughly 1 in 9 cars sold are projected to be electric

Europe, despite a generally weak outlook for passenger car sales and the phase-out of EV subsidies in some countries, EVs are still set to represent about 1 in 4 cars sold

More than 1 in 5 cars sold globally this year is expected to be electric, with surging demand projected over the next decade, says a new International Energy Agency (IEA) report



Tesla deploys 4 GWh of storage in Q1, stops reporting solar volume

deployed 4,053MWh of storage in Q1 2024

Tesla doesn’t offer a breakdown of those figures by product (Megapack vs Powerwall)

Musk said it was the Megapack large-scale battery energy storage system (BESS) solution that enabled increased profitability for its energy business line

4% year-on-year increase from 3,889MWh deployed in Q1 2023

gross profit for the segment was up 140% year-on-year (solar & storage)

Solar PV deployments slumped to just 40MW in the previous quarter, and figures weren’t even provided for solar in the latest shareholder deck for Q1

Energy generation and storage revenue for Q1 was just over US$1.6 billion, a 7% increase from US$1.5 billion in Q1 2023

dedicated Megapack factory in Lathrop, California as of the start of this year its annual production capacity had reached 20GWh, and by the end of this year expects to ramp that too, to 40GWh



Q1 Chinese solar up 36%, 45 GWac installed

first quarter of 2024 addition of 45.74 GWac of new capacity, marking a 12.08 GW improvement compared to the previous year

increased by approximately 36% annually

lower than the 155% year-on-year increase in Q1/2023, when China installed 33.66 GW of new solar capacity

cumulative installed solar PV capacity reached around 660 GW

country’s wind power capacity increased to 460 GW, with 15.5 GW of new additions in Q1/2024

combined wind+solar combined capacity of 1.12 TW

anticipated that China will likely achieve its 1.2 TW wind and solar target well ahead of the 2030 goal (in 2024), with an additional 80 GW expected to be added this year

CPIA forecasts that China will install between 190 GW AC and 220 GW AC of new solar PV capacity in 2024



China tighten ocean pv rules

China’s Ministry of Natural Resources has issued a document for solar offshore PV, stating that only four types of sea areas can accommodate offshore solar PV projects

offshore solar PV projects can only be built two kilometres offshore on four types of sea areas: nuclear power plants’ thermal discharge areas, salt ponds and salt fields, sea aquaculture areas and offshore wind-solar sites

Currently, most of the approved offshore PV projects fail to meet the requirements

offshore solar PV projects can only be developed on a larger scale after demonstrating their impacts, including on the local marine environment



Danish wind vs Putin’s black gas

Danish Energy Agency announced this week plans for the largest offshore wind tender in the country’s history, which could see anywhere from 6GW to 10GW awarded from six new sites

With hundreds of wind turbines, we are insuring ourselves against Putin’s black gas

Located on the Jutland Peninsula in the North Sea, Denmark is one of this planet’s offshore wind pioneers

built the world’s first commercial offshore wind farm back in 1991 – a 5MW project consisting of 11 wind turbines located in the shallow waters off the coast of Vindeby in the country’s southeast

Denmark is operating total offshore wind capacity of 2.7GW, with the 1GW Thor Offshore Wind Farm to be completed in 2027

further 3GW is expected to be built on the Bornholm energy island being developed between the Danish Energy Agency and Danish TSO Energinet



Q1 solar panel recycling up 350% in Belgium

total amounted to 404 tons, equivalent to approximately 18,500 solar panels

PV Cycle Belgium says it collected 658 tons throughout 2023

Source pv magazine
Source pv magazine

quantity of recycled solar panels has more than quadrupled in Belgium in the last five years and added that it is preparing for a continued increase in quantity in the coming years

PV Cycle Belgium collects and processes solar panels free of charge at the end of their useful life

company that put the solar panels onto the market pays a contribution of €1.50 ($1.60) per panel to PV Cycle Belgium, which is passed on to the final consumer

number of companies it is affiliated with increased by one-third last year to reach 400 firms

number of solar panels reported by these companies increased to 4.2 million modules last year


By: John Fitzgerald Weaver – Solar Consultant


Ship for boarding wind turbines in rough seas launched

the ship which is equipped with a new type of suspension system said to enable technicians to safely access offshore wind turbines even in high waves

suspension system, developed by Australian inventor Nauti-Craft, is said to enable the two hulls of the catamaran to independently balance and compensate for wave forces and the resulting movements

As a result, the deck of the ship, the so-called chassis, can be kept relatively calm in the passive mode of the system and can dampen a considerable part of the accelerations during transit

In active mode, it even remains absolutely balanced

movement of the hulls caused by the swell is damped by the cylinders of this hydraulic system and also converted into pressure and heat energy

waste heat is used to heat the ship, including the deck, in winter and the pressure will be converted back into electrical energy in future, which can be used to support the entire power supply on the ship


By: John Fitzgerald Weaver – Solar Consultant


$4 trillion a year needed, $18 trillion gap, in clean investment by 2030

Last year, $1.8 trillion was invested in relation to the energy transition, up from $33 billion in 2004.

Blackrock estimates that the world’s green energy transition will require $4 trillion annually by the mid-2030s

about $19 trillion invested to date since 2004

there’s still an $18 trillion gap to get to where we need to by 2030

survey of 200 institutional investors last year found that 56% plan to increase transition allocations in the next 1 to 3 years

46% saying that navigating the transition is their most important investment priority in the same period of time

60% of needed capital is expected to come from the private sector



Solar silver up a bit, quartz sand down a chunk

Solar up a bit

price of silver powder has increased by 50 yuan/ton to 7,610 yuan/ton, with a cumulative increase of 910 yuan/ton in this cycle

main grid front silver paste for the cells has increased by 122 yuan/kg to 7,441 yuan/kg

price of the fine grid front silver paste for the cells has increased by 81 yuan/kg to 4,913 yuan/kg

price of the back silver paste for the cells has increased by 80 yuan/kg to 7,491 yuan/kg

Quartz is down

price of inner-layer high-purity quartz sand has decreased by 10.5 yuan/ton to 31 yuan/ton month-on-month

price of middle-layer high-purity quartz sand has fallen by 1 yuan/ton to 16.5 yuan/ton

price of outer-layer high-purity quartz sand has dropped by 2 yuan/ton to 5.2 yuan/ton

price of EVA particles has fallen by 300 yuan/ton to 11,700 yuan/ton

Module exports up

January, China’s photovoltaic module exports were 26.6GW, a year-on-year increase of 53%

February, module exports were 24.3GW, a year-on-year increase of 45%



Daytime electricity pricing negative in California as solar soars

record of 17.802 GW was reached at 12:37 pm PT April 11, surpassing the April 10 record by 3.7%, according to CAISO latest Key Statistics report released April 16

CAISO also set an instantaneous all-time maximum demand served by solar of 86.4% at 12:30 pm April 11, surpassing the record of 82.4% reached a day earlier. Before that the record was from April 2022.

CAISO peakload was 26.563 GW April 11 and has averaged 24.985 so far this month, 2.4% lower than a year ago.

CAISO solar penetration reached a year-to-date high of 26.03% on April 11

Solar penetration for the noon hour on April 11 was 40.45%, the highest level so far this year for that hour

SP15 on-peak day-ahead locational marginal price was $2.21/MWh April 10 and $8.79/MWh April 11

prices fell as low as minus $26.26/MWh for April 6 as the thermal market share sank to 14.2% of the daily total fuel mix, after averaging 33% of the mix in 2024 up until that date



UPDATE: CAISO storage breaks 6.5 GW output

Update – California energy storage records extended:

On Sunday its dominance was even greater – setting a new output record of 6.5 GW

record share of 26.5 per cent of supply

ranking as the the number one supplier for the grid from 6.45pm to 8.25pm.

Estimates that there’s 7 GW of capacity under CAISO management, so greater than 90% utilization. Most of these batteries are 4 hour batteries, so almost 28 GWh of storage capacity.

These batteries are consuming up to 4 GW in daytime solar. Note that most charging occurs during solar period when pricing is the lowest.



Batteries output 6.1 GW – California power grid evolving right now

Multiple clean energy records have hit in California this spring, one of which happened the evening of April 16 with 6.177 GW of energy storage outputting into the grid at 8.10 PM PST. At the time, energy storage was the greatest output source on CAISO – which represents 90% of the electricity demand in the world’s 5th largest economy.

On April 20th, renewables were meeting 153% of electricity demand within the state. California is beginning to clean powergrids outside of it, as it has done in its own special way for so long. What’s interesting, is that this number doesn’t include behind the meter solar power – which is only added to the list in the demand that isn’t showing up – and it’s probably greater than 10 GW at this time of the day.

The basic structure of the powergrid in Texas is changing as increasing amounts of solar complement the existing massive amounts of wind, which are now being complemented with fast moving energy storage. First off is the fact that these new generation sources are pushing coal to the curb. Also happening is that natural gas is no longer setting the wholesale price of electricity – this is defined as being the marginal generator or marginal source – the electricity source that meets additional demand when energy prices rise. Seems batteries are becoming that source.


50 buyers pass on 80 MW solar line in France

around 50 interested parties considered investing in the company, without results

invested in a new laminator in November 2023 to achieve annual production of 200,000 modules – the equivalent of 80 MW

French PV module maker Systovi goes into liquidation

87 employees

recorded a €21.5 million turnover in 2023, solid first half of 2023, sharp drop in Systovi’s order books

manufacturing solar energy equipment since 2008 at its Carquefou factory near Nantes, France



10 GW US polysilicon plant gets government funding

Highland Materials has secured US$255.6 million in 48C tax credits to build a polysilicon plant in the US

facility is expected to have an initial annual capacity of 16,000 metric tons (MT) of solar silicon, to be increased to 20,000MT in four years

be equivalent to 10GW of solar cells

location for the polysilicon plant has not been disclosed, nor when it will begin commercial operation.



Lithium entering power storage markets in China soon

We believe that after the implementation of the energy storage policy, the new energy storage will accelerate the promotion of entering the power trading market and expand its revenue model.

7.8GW/16.3GWh in 2022

22.8GW/49.1GWh in 2023, nearly three times

cumulative installed capacity of new energy storage in China will reach 31.3GW/66.9GWh

In 2024, the scale of new grid-connected energy storage projects in China is expected to reach 34.5GW/85.4GWh under the baseline scenario

43.4GW/107.1GWh under the optimistic prediction

Growth rate of 74% and 118% respectively



IEA says 446 GWdc solar installed in 2023, 1.6 TW cumulatively

IEA PVPS counts the world to have installed up to 446 GW DC of new PV capacity in 2023

global cumulative to 1.6 TW

global solar PV module inventory now stands at 150 GW

China – 235.5 GW DC

Europe brought online 61 GW DC, including 55.8 GW DC in the European Union (EU).

Germany led with 14.3 GW DC, followed by 7.7 GW DC in Spain, 6 GW DC in Poland, 5.3 GW DC in Italy, and 4.2 GW DC in the Netherlands.

US was next with 33.2 GW DC in the Americas, while Brazil installed 11.9 GW DC in the region

India with 16 GW DC was followed by 3.8 GW DC in Australia, 3.3 GW DC in Korea, and 6.3 GW DC in Japan

countries with theoretical penetration rates over 10% doubled from last year to 18, and whilst smaller populations such as Spain, the Netherlands, Chile and Greece were leaders, more populous countries, including Germany and Japan, also passed 10%.



Squirrel might have influenced solar related fire


Madison Fire Department officials said a squirrel may have played a role in a solar panel fire that occurred at a home Monday afternoon on the city’s far east side

just before 2:45 p.m. Smoke and flames could be seen coming from a solar panel on the roof of the home

Crews shut off power to the panels they quickly extinguished the flames. The fire was confined to the panel and some shingles, and officials said it didn’t extend to the home.

MG&E and the solar panel company responded to the scene.

Officials said the fire was caused by the radiant heat of the panel.

As crews were putting out the fire, they saw a squirrel run out from under one of the panels. Officials said the animal may have been a contributing factor with the fire.


Maybe, possibly, probably


Agrivoltaic (berry) models more complex, possibly environmentally specific

meta-analysis on the growth of strawberries, blueberries, blackberries and blackcurrants under different levels of shade generated by elevated agrivoltaic systems

although classified as shade-benefitting in previous literature, not all berries are equally profiting from the presence of the photovoltaic panels

3,677 agronomic experiments considering berry yield under at least two light levels

in most cases, low shade levels are relatively less detrimental, or even beneficial, to berry yield than high shade levels

‘exception to this is the response of strawberries with increasing yields at high shade rates…Physiologically, this response is highly improbable and can likely be attributed to the limited number of data points at low shade rates’

significant difference in crop yield response between environments with high and low radiation intensity. Yield losses as a result of shade, the analysis showed, are more substantial in low radiation intensity environments

‘suggests that successes of one region will not necessarily hold somewhere else’

‘although classified as shade-benefitting in previous literature, not all berries are equally tolerant to shade’

‘Whereas blueberry yield at high radiation intensities can benefit from up to 50 % shade, other berry types are better classified as shade tolerant, enduring up to 35 % shade without yield loss but declining afterwards’



New Bedford as wind terminal challenged by Salem, others

What’s next for New Bedford’s offshore wind terminal?

Source New Bedford Light

New Bedford Marine Commerce Terminal cost taxpayers about $113 million and was completed in 2015

empty until 2023

Since its design and construction, a lot has changed: wind projects were delayed or canceled; bigger specialty ports have come online or are due to finish construction by 2026; and turbines have grown substantially in size

three offshore wind developers released their new project bids for New England, two of them proposed using marshaling ports in Salem or New London. And the one that proposed using New Bedford’s port also included options for doing the work at those other ports.

15 megawatts. To marshal those projects, they plan to use ports in Connecticut, New York, New Jersey and Salem

wind marshaling ports in the U.S. will range from 30 to about 80 acres, though the report states the industry is beginning to prefer sites of at least 50 acres

“Salem is on the larger end of terminals in the wind space. It’s an advantage in that it allows us to store more and larger components.”

terminal would have separate spaces for simultaneous loading in and loading out of components, as well as roll on/roll off access with ramps for larger items, like monopiles, that could also be stored on site.



Roman tile solar panels in Pompeii

Roman tile solar panels in Pompeii


solar panels on the villa’s roof are flat and lie between traditional ceramic curved tiles

cover 70sqm of roof, produce a maximum of 13 kilowatt-hours and are linked to an ecologically-friendly sodium battery

Pompeii, which gets over 15 hours of sunlight a day in peak summer, intends to extend its use to other villas in the archaeological site

5 per cent less efficient than a traditional solar panel.

cost is a bit more than the price of a new roof and traditional panels put together — though the solar tiles, which last between 20 to 25 years, serve double duty because they function as a roof too



EV pricing down 18%, Model Y at lowest price

According to new data, EV prices are down 18.3% in April 2024, while non-EV prices are 13.1% lower than last year.

Ford cut Mach-E prices by up to $8,100 in March.

Ford also opened orders for the 2024 F-150 Lightning this week while introducing new price cuts on the EV pickup of up to $5,500.

Volkswagen is offering $13,000 off the 2023 ID.4 AWD Pro S

Hyundai slashed prices on the IONIQ 5 and IONIQ 6 earlier this year

Nissan is offering nearly $16,000 off the Ariya electric SUV

Mercedes EQS is $19,442 lower than its average price of $104,747.

Tesla has dropped the price of the Model Y, Model S and Model X by $2,000 each in the US. Y cheapest it’s been.



Solar silver use up 64%, 20% increase expected in 2024 – price up 7.5% in 2022-23

Demand for silver in the PV industry increased by 64% from 118.1 million ounces (Moz) in 2022 to 193.5 Moz in 2023

report forecasts the demand could increase a further 20% this year, reaching 232 Moz

Total silver demand fell by 7% last year, from 1,278.9 Moz in 2022 to 1,195.0 Moz in 2023

a rise projected this year

average price for silver stood at $23.35 per ounce in 2023, up from $21.73 per ounce in 2022



New England/New York transmission upgrade plans seeking federal support

Power Up New England will utilize new and upgraded transmission points of interconnection in Massachusetts and Connecticut to access 4.8 GW of offshore wind and battery energy storage systems in Connecticut and Maine

Clean Resilience Link features an interregional transmission upgrade “that would enable operation of a New York-New England transmission line at 345 kilovolts, increasing transfer capacity between the two regions by up to 1,000 MW,”

Awards are capped at $250 million unless projects have a significant transmission investment, in which case they can receive up to $1 billion

Both New England projects proposed this week contain significant transmission investments

Up to $1.82 billion in funding is available through this round of Grid Innovation Program funding



Announced battery capacity 4X projected demand per Bloomberg

BloombergNEF estimates that lithium-ion battery demand across EVs and stationary storage came in at around 950 gigawatt hours last year

Global battery manufacturing capacity was more than twice that, at close to 2,600 GWh

China’s battery production in 2023 alone was similar to global demand.

BNEF is tracking 7.9 TWh of annual battery manufacturing capacity announced for the end of 2025

compared to demand projections of 1.6 TWh, and even that assumes steady EV demand growth and very rapid growth in batteries for storage applications

quite a lot of that announced capacity simply won’t come online

Much of it will either be behind schedule or outright cancelled as the realities of scaling up become clearer and the list of contenders thins out

Other parts of the supply chain are not able to deliver at that level, and we can’t perfectly match supply to demand anyway, because EV batteries are not yet a commodity product

prices will fall and margins will get squeezed

14% dip in average battery pack prices in 2023, and China’s CATL announcing that it expects to be able to sell battery cells at the equivalent of less than $60 per kWh this year

Battery prices also are converging across sectors as manufacturers look for new markets for their products

biggest question is how sustainable the low battery prices will be after the industry shakeout that invariably comes from overcapacity

Some of the current prices are simply driven by lower raw material costs for things like lithium



New York launches distributed generation aggregation program

New York ISO this week launched the nation’s first program to integrate aggregations of distributed energy resources into wholesale markets

new market rules require participating DER to be at least 10 kWac in size

10-kW minimum size was a controversial issue and will significantly limit the number of resources that can participate

FERC Chairman Willie Phillips and Commissioner Allison Clements acknowledged “valid concerns about the potential limiting effect” of the threshold, but said the “lack of such a requirement would substantially delay rollout of the participation model.”

e 10 kW threshold “balances the need for efficient administration” of wholesale markets alongside the “value that small facilities can reliably provide the bulk power system.”



Nation’s largest residential installer up 20-50%, potentially 60-90%

Freedom Forever had ~400MW PTO in 2023 and expects 480-600MW to PTO in 2024, which suggests volume could be up 20-50% according to this metric

believes Freedom can also grow sales and installations by 60-90% in 2024

confidence stems from active sales rep data, which is a useful leading indicator that shows sales rep productivity has increased 25% m/m for Freedom

more optimistic view of the 2024 resi solar market with his estimate of down 5-10% vs. our view of down 15% (see here) and Ohm Analytics’ forecast of down 19%

players who have survived the challenging US resi solar environment for the past year and half have higher productivity and could make up for the shortfall of all the players that have gone out of business/exited the market.

2024 financing mix to be 20-30% loan, 5-7% cash, and 65% TPO vs. 45% loan and 55% TPO in 2023

2024 inverter mix is still expected to be 80% SEDG, 20% ENPH, and a negligible amount of TSLA in 2024


German solar PPAs up due to environmental reporting law

Between 2019 and 2022, the combined capacity for offtake between the different technologies reached a maximum of 1.1GW in 2021 and decreased to 0.9GW in 2022

2023 it registered 3.6GW, 42 PPAs, of capacity

Nearly half of the volume registered in 2023 came from solar PV with 1.8GW and a high interest from customers in securing solar PPAs.

Corporate PPAs – 33 CPPAs for 9 utility PPAs – have been the main driver for the market growth

Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive (CSRD) coming into force in January 2023

CSRD increased the number of companies in Germany – from 500 to 15,000 – who were required to report on environmental, social and governance aspects (ESG) and increased the pressure to find solutions to decarbonise their operations

structure of solar PPAs signed in 2023 often had a 10-year term and a pay-as-produced (PaP) structure



Pre-Lithiation and “zero degradation” batteries

Pre-Lithiation and “zero degradation” batteries

“zero degradation” can be achieved through a process called Pre-Lithiation

additives gradually release extra lithium in the first operational cycles of a cell which results in increased capacity

Rept Battero announced 6.9MWh WENDING storage system saying “Our next-gen technology employs decay inhibition and active lithium regeneration techniques, delivering a remarkable 1800-cycle zero-degradation performance.”


there are such ‘zero-degradation’ systems already gathering operational proof in China

Pre-lithination limits the initial breakdown and high initial active lithium loss (ALL) that occurs in the first cycles of a cell’s use, thus avoiding the initial capacity fade that is usually observed.

drawback is it does however up the lithium content of the cell, which in turn will place upward cell price pressure

in a low lithium price world, this can still look attractive, especially considering total cost of ownership of the ESS


Pre-Lithiation Strategies for Next-Generation Practical Lithium-Ion Batteries

Next-generation Li-ion batteries (LIBs) with higher energy density adopt some novel anode materials, which generally have the potential to exhibit higher capacity, superior rate performance as well as better cycling durability than conventional graphite anode, while on the other hand always suffer from larger active lithium loss (ALL) in the first several cycles. During the last two decades, various pre-lithiation strategies are developed to mitigate the initial ALL by presetting the extra Li sources to effectively improve the first Coulombic efficiency and thus achieve higher energy density as well as better cyclability. In this progress report, the origin of the huge initial ALL of the anode and its effect on the performance of full cells are first illustrated in theory. Then, various pre-lithiation strategies to resolve these issues are summarized, classified, and compared in detail. Moreover, the research progress of pre-lithiation strategies for the representative electrochemical systems are carefully reviewed. Finally, the current challenges and future perspectives are particularly analyzed and outlooked. This progress report aims to bring up new insights to reassess the significance of pre-lithiation strategies and offer a guideline for the research directions tailored for different applications based on the proposed pre-lithiation strategies summaries and comparisons.

Paper Link


Perovskites as sensor/LED powers development

“They have tried materials like OLED and QD-LED, but the photoresponsivity is not so good. For our perovskite LED, it’s good.”

interested in how to integrate the function of a touchscreen, or imaging – photo-sensitive pixels – can do far more than detect touch. They can image objects placed on a display, detect fingerprints, and even charge a device.

Perovskites are a class of materials that form a crystal structure like that of the eponymous perovskite—a calcium titanium oxide mineral discovered in the Ural Mountains of Russia in 1839

“If you want a material to have a good photo response, you need to generate electron carriers in these materials”

“In perovskite, this is easy.”

It’s the carrier transport layer that allows the movement of electrons, which in turn makes it possible to detect touch input. And because PeLEDs are photosensitive, they can both detect and image the objects that touch the display.

“It’s a fundamental concept that good solar cells should be good LEDs, people know this well,”



Wind grew 50% in 2023 – 117 GW deployed

117 GW of new capacity installed

Global Wind Energy Council’s 2023 Global Wind Report

installations experienced a 50 percent year-on-year increase over 2022

54 countries deploying new wind power

Growth is highly concentrated in a few big countries like China, the U.S., Brazil and Germany

In order to meet the COP28 target for 2030, the wind industry would need to triple 2023’s annual growth, achieving at least 320 GW by 2030



Indiana rare earth facility coming this year

developed innovative technologies to separate and purify rare earth and battery elements from a variety of sources including ores, postindustrial wastes and recycled magnets

innovations improve upon current industrial methods by using significantly less power and water and fewer hazardous chemicals while generating near-zero waste

higher extraction yield, higher purity, smaller footprint and higher efficiency than traditional industrial methods to source rare earth and battery elements

license agreement signed April 18 significantly expands the fields of use and allows the company to separate and purify rare earth and battery elements from any feedstock material

company has developed commercial-scale processes based on the Purdue technologies

constructing its first commercial facility in Marion, Indiana, with the expectation to initially hire 40-60 employees, eventually growing to over 250 full-time employees on-site

Production of rare earth elements and the company’s first sales are anticipated to begin in late 2024

ReElement Technologies on Thursday (April 18) signed an exclusive license to use patented Purdue University technologies



Commercial solar with new construction

2018 the Watertown Town Council passed a first-in-New-England solar ordinance requiring solar on the equivalent of 50% roof coverage for new and substantially renovated buildings over 10,000 sq. feet and 90% of parking garages

city celebrates the operation of a solar and storage project installed at 66 Galen, a brand new 224,106 square foot life science building that features purpose-built offices and laboratories

Gold LEED-certified facility

252 kW solar and 125 kW storage system, covering about 10% of the buildings electricity needs

EV charging stations featuring 15 ports, located within the parking garage

Znshine Solar modules, a 251 kWh battery from SYL and Powercharge EV chargers



“Half tandem solar cells” at 27.6% efficiency

half-tandem cells, which consist of one cell comprised of two active layers, stacked on top of each other without an intermediate layer

team used methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3), a perovskite material, and molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2) to form the two layers

th the latter material driving an increase in conversion efficiency from 12.13%, before its addition, to 27.01%, after its inclusion

changed the nanostructure of the components to resemble a V-shape, to “enhance light absorption through light trapping,” further increasing the power conversion efficiency to 27.63%

2.35 times efficiency enhancement for the nanostructured V-shaped half-tandem solar cell with MAPbI3 and MoTe2 as absorbent layers



New, large polysilicon volumes imminent, pricing already unstable and downward

imminent introduction of large-scale capacity in Q2 and Q3 will further strain polysilicon supply, especially considering that current prices are below manufacturers’ production costs

current inventory stands at approximately 190,000 to 220,000 tons

some manufacturers may opt to conduct maintenance in advance to mitigate profit pressures

wafer manufacturers are scaling back their production as anticipated, resulting in reduced purchasing demand for polysilicon

operating rates in the wafer sector have plummeted to below 50%

182N wafers constitute 66% of the total wafer inventory, while 210 (including 210R) accounts for 11%, and N-type 18X(R) faces even greater inventory pressure

cells are still at risk of price reduction

mainstream concluded price for

–182mm facial mono PERC module is RMB 0.86/W (12¢/W USD)

–210mm facial mono PERC module is priced at RMB 0.88/W

–182mm bifacial glass PERC module at RMB 0.88/W

–210mm bifacial glass PERC module at RMB 1.13/W (16¢/W USD)

With the likelihood of continued decreases in n-type cell prices, module manufacturers are increasingly inclined to lower their operating rates to mitigate the risk of decreased module value due to declining raw material prices



Solar funding tightening, interest rates giving pause

total corporate solar funding, global venture capital funding, public market financing, and PV mergers and acquisitions all fell year on year in the first quarter of 2024

global solar sector is “experiencing peak uncertainty and a challenging investment climate,”

total corporate funding into the solar sector stood at $8.1 billion in the first three months of the year…figure includes 41 deals, marking a 4% year-on-year decline.

figure is a 47% quarter-over-quarter increase over the $5.5 billion raised in the fourth quarter of 2023

global venture-capital funding in the solar sector in the first quarter of 2024 hit $406 million across 13 deals, down 81% year on year

Public market financing reached $1.4 billion across six deals the first three months of 2024, down 39% year on year

ear. Debt financing rose 59% year on year across 22 deals, according to Mercom

challenges – likelihood of prolonged high-interest rates, higher labor and construction costs due to inflation, and supply chain issues, coupled with trade disputes and tariffs

21 solar M&A transactions in the first quarter, unchanged from the fourth quarter of 2023, but down from the 27 solar M&A deals recorded in the first quarter of 2023

crash in Chinese module prices has spurred demand, it has made investments in manufacturing projects unattractive, even with incentives

WoodMac said that in the United States, a 2% increase in the risk-free interest rate could push up the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) by as much as 20% for renewables



35 improvements to interconnection challenges

report presents 35 interconnection improvement solutions developed through a DOE stakeholder engagement process launched 22 months ago, known as the Interconnection Innovation e-Xchange

Report Link

The report is separated into four “goals”, with multiple solutions underneath each.

The goals are:

  1. Increase Data Access, Transparency, and Security for Interconnection
  2. Improve Interconnection Process and Timeline
  3. Promote Economic Efficiency in Interconnection
  4. Maintain a Reliable, Resilient, and Secure Grid

An example solution set, in this case for goal #1:

• Solution 1.1: Improve the scope, accessibility, quality, and standardization of data on projects already in interconnection queues, including project attributes, cost estimates, and post-IA information. (short-term)

• Solution 1.2: Enhance the scope, timeliness, accuracy, and consistency of interconnection study models and modeling assumptions that transmission providers make available to interconnection customers. (short-term)

• Solution 1.3: Develop tools to manage, analyze, and visualize transmission and interconnection data made available in the first two solutions, while ensuring secure data-sharing processes. (medium-term)


850 MW of solar modules to be made in 2024???

China’s 2024 domestic production target is ~750GW vs. Exawatt’s global demand forecast of ~550GW; 80-100GW likely from outside China

Chinese installations in the first two months of 2024 were very strong (up ~80% y/y)

poly prices appeared to stabilize in Q1, spot prices have been dipping the past few weeks to below cash costs for leading manufacturers

production continued to grow in Q1’24, with Mar’24 production up ~75% y/y

Several large poly facilities are expected to begin or continue ramping up production in Q2, including those from DQ, Hoshine and Xinyi, maintaining downward pressure on prices

Exawatt sees limited COGS reductions for Chinese module manufacturers of just ~1-2c/W over the next five years for PERC and TOPCon

Exawatt sees ~2c/W COGS reduction through Q4’29 and ~1c/W or less given a medium-term outlook for USD deflation relative to RMB combined with other headwinds such as higher aluminum costs

TOPCon COGS/W is falling below PERC COGS/W, and TOPCon is expected to maintain a cost advantage vs. heterojunction (HJT)


Hardware advancements and politics influencing battery procurement

shift from the standard “jelly roll” stack design

jelly roll design layers the battery cell’s electrodes and separators. This cell is rolled into a cylinder and then inserted into a rectangular case. The roll does not fit cleanly into the rectangular can; instead, gaps are inherent in this approach and reduce the cell’s overall efficiency

Z-shaped design, by contrast, allows the electrodes and separators to be collapsed and folded to fit more neatly into the container. This design shift offers around a 10% volumetric energy density improvement using the same materials

BYD Blade
BYD Blade

BYD is taking a somewhat different approach to replacing jelly rolls. It introduced a blade-like design in which individual cells are placed in arrays when they are inserted into the battery pack. The company states this approach increases the battery pack’s space utilisation by more than 50% compared to earlier jelly roll designs

manufacturers are moving away from air-cooled batteries to favour liquid cooling

Liquid cooling reduces uneven temperature control and supports the move to larger Z-stack cell designs

In the same cell that earlier held a 280 Amp-hour (Ah) configuration can now hold a cell as large as 316Ah in a liquid cooled configuration

National Defense Authorization Act that was approved on 22 December bars the Pentagon from buying batteries from Chinese suppliers alleged to have ties either to China’s military or the ruling communist party. The ban takes effect in October 2027 and targets CATL, BYD, Envision Energy Ltd., EVE Energy Co., Gotion High Tech Co. and Hithium Energy Storage Technology Co.



Tesla Powerwall 3 details, residential solar ‘only’ down 13%

Ohm Analytics adjusted their projection of residential solar being down 13% vs 19%

It is important to note Ohm’s forecast is dependent on a recovery in H2’24

recent green shoots with sequential growth in February and March in Florida and Texas

started to see some positive signs, but needs to see more of a ramp in CA and continued improvement with installer liquidity issues

Regarding the Powerwall 3 from Tesla

Powerwall 3 could be considered Powerwall “Free inverter and racking.”

As more racking products such as IronRidge’s XR Flush Mount System meet the UL3741 standard, rapid shutdown requirements can be met through string inverters without requiring MLPE

if you have a 25 panel system with optimizers that cost ~$50 each, you are paying ~$1,250 for the optimizers

with the TSLA Powerwall 3, assuming two strings, you only need four components at ~$25 a piece, or ~$100, which results in ~$1k or more in savings

Roth notes that ~$1 is close to racking costs, and already, a Powerwall 3 solar project gives customers a free inverter – as usually one each for solar and battery, but with Tesla setup only one is needed.


First two months of year China makes – 330k tons of solar poly, 130 GW wafers, 100 GW cells, 76 GW of modules

China’s Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) has released January-February PV production data…

manufactured about 330,000 tons of polysilicon

130 GW of silicon wafers (with 9.3 GW exported)

100 GW of solar cells (with 9.5 GW exported)

76 GW of PV modules were also made in the first two months of the year

Computes to 1.98 million tons of polysilicon, 780 GW of wafers, 600 GW of cells, and 456 GW of modules



Heterojunction modules reaches nine, market share falls to 15%

increase in the number of products in other technologies, the market share of HJT dipped from 20% to 15% by 2023

number of companies offering HJT modules commercially has significantly increased, growing from 4 in 2022 to 9 in 2023

REC, Meyer Burger, Huasun, and Jinergy – were the initial players offering HJT modules commercially

Huasun takes top honors among the HJT modules with 23.02% efficiency and the highest power of 715 W.



Polysilicon to reach $5.50/kg, 20% utilization rate – pushing modules to 11¢/W

China hit 2.4 million tons of polysilicon production capacity at the end of 2023, and notes that the nation will end 2024 with 4 million tons of capacity if all announced production plans are realized

said. “If everything announced got built, China would end 2024 with 4 million tons of production capacity, and back in 2023 the peak number for all potential facilities was 7 million tons. Half of it, however, was ‘dependent on market conditions’ and therefore canceled.”

Polysilicon prices fell to $6.70/kg last week, after remaining stable at a historic low of $8/kg throughout the first few months of 2024.

This has accounted for roughly half of the simultaneous drop in module prices, which were also stable for the first few months of 2024, from $0.130/W to $0.122/W

2023 ended with 1.43 million tons of output, which corresponds to approximately 550 GW

With just a little further adoption of thinner wafers, 2.4 million tons would be enough to make 1,000 GW of solar once a usage rate of 2.4 g/W is reached

In the past, the marginal cost of production was $7/kg, but with the addition of so many extra-large and modern facilities in the past two years, we believe this has dropped significantly,” he explained. “Daqo New Energy recently claimed that its Q4 2023 marginal cost of production was just CNY 40.69 ($5.60)/kg, although Daqo’s full-year cost, including sales, was $6.70/kg – the same as the current market price.”

we expect that the polysilicon price will stay above $5.50/kg for at least a year. Module prices should fall to $0.110/W

seems to be more a case of very low utilization rates throughout the supply chain, some as low as 20%



Virginia seeking solar via RFP

US utility Dominion Energy is seeking proposals for solar, wind and energy storage projects in the state of Virginia

will accept five types of proposals, including new solar PV projects and new PV solar generation co-located with energy storage. It will also look at new onshore wind, onshore wind co-located with energy storage and standalone energy storage

company is looking for rooftop solar projects with a capacity of less than 3MW in Virginia’s urban centres to reduce the load on the electric grid

company is seeking both utility-scale projects with a capacity of more than 3MW and distributed projects that are 3MW or less. Dominion Energy will only consider facilities located in Virginia

For distributed projects that are 3MW or less, the facilities must be located within Dominion Energy Virginia’s service territory

proposals for mechanically complete projects that are 5MW or less will be accepted as in last year’s request for proposals

Other categories in the RFP include new onshore wind projects, new onshore wind projects co-located with BESS and new standalone BESS



7.7 GW of California VPPs could save consumers billions

A 7.7 GW virtual power plant made up of distributed California solar plus storage assets could…

save electricity consumers $550 million annually by deploying about 7.7 GW of virtual power plant capacity by 2035

avoid $755 million in traditional power system costs

analyzed the cumulative potential of five VPP technologies, including smart thermostats, behind-the-meter batteries, managed electric vehicle charging, automated demand response for commercial and industrial users and grid-interactive water heating, while excluding high-potential technologies, such as bidirectional EV charging, that Brattle says still face technical or commercial barriers to widespread adoption

Current, California’s 1.6 GW in VPP capacity lies in traditional demand response, largely in the commercial and industrial sector, the report found

Green Mountain Power’s battery program, whose “generous incentives” have already achieved a 1% participation rate among all GMP customers and which the utility forecasts could scale to 8% participation by 2030

Of the 17 “sensitivity cases” Brattle examined that could push the state’s VPP potential higher or lower than the 7.7 GW-by-2035 base case, “participation” had the highest upside of around 12 GW, or about 4 GW above the base case




US’ largest offshore wind farm construction start imminent

US’ largest offshore wind farm construction start imminent

2.6 GW US Project Receives Final Federal Permit, Monopile Installation to Start in May

DP3 installation vessel Orion, owned and operated by the Belgian offshore construction specialist DEME, has sailed out of Invergordon in Scotland and is now en route to the United States, where it will be installing monopile foundations at the Coastal Virginia Offshore Wind (CVOW) project site

On 15 April, DEME announced that Orion had completed the monopile installation at the Scottish offshore wind farm Moray West and “started its voyage across the Atlantic Ocean back to the United States, heading to its next project in Virginia”

installation of 176 monopiles at Dominion Energy’s project site located some 43 kilometres (27 miles) off the coast of Virginia

The combined technology of the Vibro Hammer and Impact Hammer will also be used on the CVOW project, in combination with state-of-the-art noise mitigation technologies to protect marine mammals

monopiles for the 2.6 GW CVOW offshore wind farm are being produced by EEW SPC, which sent off the first batch from its factory in Rostock, Germany, to the Port of Virginia’s Portsmouth Marine Terminal in September 2023



More electricity generated, with less irrigation and fewer pesticides needed at German solar agrivoltaic site

solar panels installed above apple trees under the project, irrigation requirements were reduced by 50%

 save 70% of pesticides on the area under the agri-PV system

Agri-PV system produces over 20 percent more electricity than the consortium expected based on the simulations

team believes the solar system is generating more electricity due to a combination of evaporative cooling and rear ventilation even though it is still working on the exact reasons

This project had been ongoing for the past two years. A new agrivoltaic testing facility is opening:

agri-PV system at Vollmer Fruit Farm is divided into 4 parts. It includes permanently mounted PV modules for kiwi, pears, apples and plums; a system based on polytunnels in berry cultivation with semi-transparent modules; and a tracking system with fully shading modules

The special thing about the tracked PV system is that the 140 meter long rows are halved. One half of the rows are tracked taking into account plant physiological aspects, the other half are controlled purely according to sun-optimized parameters


USA’s largest residential installation company

The interview was from January of this year, but was interesting to read, some of the thoughts here:

Freedom Forever is the largest residential solar installation company in the US. The company provides engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) to its dealer partners. Freedom Forever was founded in 2011 and is based in Temecula, California.

Brett has a more optimistic view for 2024 US resi solar growth and believes the industry could see positive growth vs. our view of down 15%

Freedom Forever had an 80/20 SEDG/ENPH mix in 2023 and expects a similar mix in 2024

Freedom Forever is module agnostic and believes the “brains of the system” is the inverter

Freedom had a 7% battery attach rate in 2023, currently has a 22% attach rate, and could see an attach rate as high as 30% by YE’24

Brett believes that Freedom could reach the domestic content threshold without a domestic content module.


BYD Blade Gen 2 coming at higher energy density, better price

BYD is preparing to launch the Gen 2 Blade Battery

BYD Blade Battery could charge from 10% to 80% in 30 minutes, had an energy density of 150 Wh/kg, a charge cycle lifespan of 3,000 + charges, and a cost per kWh of less than $85, and in some cases, a price as low as $55.40 per kWh

CATL-sourced LFP pack in the base Tesla Model 3, which can charge from 10% to 80% in just under 30 minutes, has an energy density of 125 Wh/kg, a charge cycle lifespan of 2,000 charges and a cost of $100 per kWh

new version will cost the same as the old one and have the same longevity and charge speeds, but it will be significantly lighter and more compact

increasing the cells’ energy density to around 220 Wh/kg, giving the entire pack an energy density of 190 Wh/kg, which would make it the world’s most energy-dense LFP battery pack

BYD estimated such vehicles will be able to do 1,000 km / 621 miles on the CLTC cycle, equivalent to around 520 miles WLTP



EU may support solar panel manufacturing, but not import limits

Most of the bloc’s members are set to commit more support to help their ailing solar panel manufacturers and opt to avoid using trade restrictions on cheap panel imports from China

EU officials said more than 20 of the EU’s 27 countries were set to sign up to it

draft said the European Commission would work with the European Investment Bank to support projects, and consider launching a cross-border European solar manufacturing project

European solar panel manufacturers have previously asked the EU to consider trade safeguards on Chinese imports, but Brussels and governments including Germany have warned broad curbs on Chinese supply could stunt Europe’s fast expansion of clean energy



Residential solar pricing down 3.5% in 2023, $2.80 per watt quoted

For the first time since 2021, quoted solar prices decreased on the marketplace, falling 3.5% to $2.80 per watt for quotes in the second half of 2023

Energy storage meanwhile decreased for the first time since EnergySage started reporting storage data in 2020. During the second half of 2023 energy storage prices declined about 6% to a median $1,265 per watt.

EnergySage said the drop in prices was driven in part by a 19% decrease in quoted storage prices in California, where energy storage attachment rates for solar projects reached 45% in the second half of 2023.

microinverter provider Enphase Energy gained market share, reaching nearly 70% of quoted systems of EnergySage marketplace

top quote solar panel brands were a more diverse mix led by REC Group, Qcells, Silfab Solar, Panasonic, and others

California median prices dropped sharply by 20% from the first half to the second half of 2023, reaching $2.70 per watt

Florida and Texas median prices were $2.35 per watt, while Colorado median prices were $3.10 per watt and Nevada $2.55 per watt

lowest quoted median per watt price was in Arizona, with $2.30 per watt, while Tennessee median prices were the highest at $3.65 per watt. California had the smallest median system size at 8.07 kW, while Kentucky had the largest with 14.50 kW for the median in the second half of 2023


Solar plus wind and Europe’s largest battery in Romania

Solar plus wind and Europe’s largest battery in Romania

6 MW/24 MWh battery energy storage system in Romania

first of three phases that are envisaged to be completed at 216 MWh by next year

connected to the company’s Mireasa wind farm of 50 MW, while a 35 MW solar power plant is set to be added by the end of the year

existing Gălbiori solar power plant has just above 1 MW in connection capacity

first stage of the battery unit has 132 battery strings with a total of 114,048 lithium ion cells containing 1,240 kilometres of active material electrodes



Tesla is right to use (Chinese) commercial solar panels on Buffalo facility

There’s much ado about some solar panels on a roof in Buffalo, but it’s just fine, and a very simple conversation really.

The Buffalo factory is a large commercial structure. None of the solar panels manufactured inside of the facility were commercial solar modules. In fact, the modules that Tesla makes there now – I doubt they’d even be able to work on this site.

When Tesla moved into the facility, they were working with Silevo. There was a very nice, high efficiency solar panel being suggested to be made in Buffalo – it never came to be, and in 2017, the relationship ended between the two companies. I don’t think the Buffalo factory was even open before that happened.

Next, one would think that Panasonic might have supplied modules – but they never actually made solar panels there. They only made solar cells. And then they left in early 2020, probably already in late 2019.

Now, we’re at a time where Tesla is making (a few at least…hopefully) solar roof tiles in the facility that are in no way proper for this building. This tiles are specifically for a residential roof at a certain angle, with a certain look. You don’t put these on a commercial rooftop. There’s a decent chance that the solar cells used in the Tesla Solar Roof actually come from LONGi, as the company is one of the world’s largest solar cell manufacturers.

Solar panel shipments grew 99.6% in 2023, reaching 564 GWp

From Paula Mints on LinkedIn

Manufacturer shipments increased by 996% in 2023 from 282.5-GWp to 564-GWp, with utilization slightly improved at 63%. Cumulatively, shipments of PV cell technologies reached 1.8-TWp at the end of 2023, with 95% of the cumulative total shipped from 2013 through 2023. The cumulative total shipped is expected to reach >2.4-TWp by the end of 2024.


Heat pumps, EV, insulation and solar users are energy patriots

Energy and Climate Intelligence Unit (ECIU) found homes using heat pumps, insulation and electric vehicles make more use of British energy and use less than half the imported fuel of a household reliant on gas and petrol

ECIU analysis found a typical household with a gas boiler, petrol car and average electricity demand relies on imports of energy, mostly gas and oil, for nearly 70% of its total needs, around 17 megawatt hours (MWh) a year.

house with good levels of insulation, using a heat pump and an electric car will use less than half that level of energy imports (45%), at around 7.5 MWh a year, from gas used in electricity generation.

Homes with solar panels as well would use around a third (36%) of the fuel imports of a typical home, at just 6MWh a year

“Nearly half of all homes in England now have an EPC rating of C or above, up from just 14% in 2010, and we’re supporting families make the switch to heat pumps, rather than forcing them, with our £7,500 heat pump grant – one of the most generous schemes in Europe.