“zero degradation” can be achieved through a process called Pre-Lithiation

additives gradually release extra lithium in the first operational cycles of a cell which results in increased capacity

Rept Battero announced 6.9MWh WENDING storage system saying “Our next-gen technology employs decay inhibition and active lithium regeneration techniques, delivering a remarkable 1800-cycle zero-degradation performance.”


there are such ‘zero-degradation’ systems already gathering operational proof in China

Pre-lithination limits the initial breakdown and high initial active lithium loss (ALL) that occurs in the first cycles of a cell’s use, thus avoiding the initial capacity fade that is usually observed.

drawback is it does however up the lithium content of the cell, which in turn will place upward cell price pressure

in a low lithium price world, this can still look attractive, especially considering total cost of ownership of the ESS


Pre-Lithiation Strategies for Next-Generation Practical Lithium-Ion Batteries

Next-generation Li-ion batteries (LIBs) with higher energy density adopt some novel anode materials, which generally have the potential to exhibit higher capacity, superior rate performance as well as better cycling durability than conventional graphite anode, while on the other hand always suffer from larger active lithium loss (ALL) in the first several cycles. During the last two decades, various pre-lithiation strategies are developed to mitigate the initial ALL by presetting the extra Li sources to effectively improve the first Coulombic efficiency and thus achieve higher energy density as well as better cyclability. In this progress report, the origin of the huge initial ALL of the anode and its effect on the performance of full cells are first illustrated in theory. Then, various pre-lithiation strategies to resolve these issues are summarized, classified, and compared in detail. Moreover, the research progress of pre-lithiation strategies for the representative electrochemical systems are carefully reviewed. Finally, the current challenges and future perspectives are particularly analyzed and outlooked. This progress report aims to bring up new insights to reassess the significance of pre-lithiation strategies and offer a guideline for the research directions tailored for different applications based on the proposed pre-lithiation strategies summaries and comparisons.

Paper Link


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