China can now produce tunnel oxide passivated contact (TOPCon) PV modules for between $0.160/W and $0.189/W. Costs in Europe, India and the United States, by contrast, could be as low as $0.243/W, $0.281/W, and $0.195/W, respectively.

Assumptions were based on the idea of module manufacturing at a 10 GW integrated PV factory.

Chinese manufacturers could currently produce heterojunction panels for between $0.173/W to $0.198/W. The price range for potential European module makers is indicated at between $0.250/W and $0.305/W. Indian and US producers, meanwhile, should achieve prices of $0.209/W and $0.290/W, respectively.


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