PERC modules remain stable with Pmax loss of only 1–2%rel after 1000 h of DH testing, regardless of the BOM employed

after the same duration of DH testing, TOPCon cell modules degrade significantly, with Pmax declining up to 65%rel.

investigates the impact of damp heat (DH) on the performance TOPCon and PERC glass/backsheet modules by varying bills of materials (BOM)

Three types of failures were observed in TOPCon modules: point-localized failure, failure at/around the interconnection of ribbon wires and busbars, and failure throughout the whole area of cells/modules

failures likely result from electrochemical reactions involving moisture, cell metallization, ribbon wires, contaminants, soldering flux, and additives released from POE

observed findings underline two crucial points: 1) the vulnerability and potential failure of TOPCon solar cells when exposed to high humidity and contaminants, and 2) the high risk associated with certain POE types, which could potentially adversely affect TOPCon cells



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