researchers in Germany has developed a comprehensive optoelectrical simulation model for triple-junction solar cells based on subcells relying on perovskite, perovskite, and crystalline silicon

For their modeling, the academics chose the Sentaurus TCAD, which is a multidimensional simulator capable of simulating the electrical, thermal, and optical characteristics of silicon-based devices

researchers initially assumed the triple junction cell to be based on a bottom silicon heterojunction cell with an indium tin oxide (ITO) layer and a silver (Ag) metal contact, a middle perovskite cell with an energy bandgap of 1.57 eV, and a top perovskite cell with a bandgap of 1.84 eV

In the optimization process, their efforts were directed to increase the photocurrent of all three cells

simulation showed that the best cell configuration may potentially achieve a power conversion efficiency of 44.3%, an open-circuit voltage of 3480 mV, a short-circuit density of 14.1 mA cm−2, and a fill factor of 90.1%



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